factors affecting maintainability

Suggest as a translation of "maintainability factors" Copy; DeepL Translator Linguee. It is an intrinsic property specified by design. For example, a more maintainable product lowers maintenance time and operating costs. Resolution: Help your operators by ensuring the system is informative and not only signals failure mode but has inbuilt diagnostics for fault finding. The environment in which maintenance or repairs will be carried out. The availability and efficiency were 96.285% and 98.627% in 5 years, respectively. Change is inevitable in software development and so, this is one of the most important properties of quality softw… Equipment downtime components. and Jisc. Composition of turnout cycle maintenance cost. may be conducive to upgrading the performance and RAMS requirements of the product, and to reducing later use cost. Qualitative requirements for safety: capability of preventing disastrous accidents in case of system failure by fault safety design, interlocking design, error prevention design, etc., while improving relevant reliability. DrEduardo Calixto, in Gas and Oil Reliability Engineering (Second Edition), 2016. Initially, this theory was mainly used in formulating assessment and inspection policies around equipment status. Logistic time is that portion of equipment downtime during which repair work is delayed because a replacement part of other component of the equipment is not immediately available. Title: Microsoft Word - tm1.doc Author: Utilisateur Created Date: 5/19/2004 7:17:04 AM Maintainability prediction is the estimation of maintenance workload (preventive and corrective) associated with the proposed design. 1.2.3 Maintainability Maintainability is the ability of an item to be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. SIL defines the requirements for the safety level of safety-related systems, classified into four levels (SIL4 is the highest requirement). 1.2.4 Factors Affecting RA… For the sake of achieving a cost-effective, coherent, and comprehensive design, the effective and efficient handling of this information is crucial. The difference between those two indexes means that throughout part of the operational time the distillation unit production was not 100%. The feature is based on reliability, availability, and maintainability. Figure 14.49. Minimize spare parts inventory is just one benefit. Figure 8-1. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The maintainability effort produces and uses a significant amount of information and data. Basic Parameters of RAM of High-Speed Turnout. An increase in maintainability can lead to reduction in operation and support costs. Maintainability is a probability measure that a product will be maintained or restored to the specified function for a specified period of time at any specific level of repair conditions. The RAMS/LCC assessment model is to assess the equipment systems by efficiency and LCC. Y1 - 2005. RAM analysis was evaluated using BlockSim and MAROS (Maintainability, Availability, Reliability, Operability Simulator) software. Translator. Maintainability is an important factor in the total cost of equipment. AB - In the offshore wind energy sector, there are many different conceptual wind turbine structures, from traditional mono-pile structures to floating platforms. Its purpose is to measure the probability that a piece of equipment in a failed state can be restored to normal operating conditions after undergoing maintenance. For quantitative requirements of safety, two concepts are mentioned in EN50126-2: tolerable hazard rate (THR) and safety integrity level (SIL). Reliability and maintainability are two factors that are heavily influenced by maintenance. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. Previous Chapter Next Chapter. [Remediation Accessed :N] its supportability. Dummer MBE, CEng, FIEE, FIEEE, ... R.C. Operational reliability defines the performance level of intrinsic reliability of a product in actual use. Reliability refers to the capability of a product, equipment, or system to perform relevant functions under given conditions and in a given time. There are many parameters which influence the maintainability of long duration manned space flights. Parametric Relationships of Factors Affecting Maintainability of Long Duration Manned Space Flights 670665. EN. The estimate should be updated continuously as the design progresses to provide visibility needed to ensure the specified requirements have a high probability achievement. T1 - Surveying the factors that influence maintainability: research design. AU - Hordijk, W.T.B. EV-UIC60-760-1:15: No. Figure 8-1 shows various ways of increasing maintainability [2]. With proper implementation of the proposed architectural approaches for data management, described previously, the developers could achieve high maintainability. The reliability objective of the system at various levels, as shown in Table 14.13, must be satisfied. Winton MBE, BSc(Eng), ACGI, CEng, FIEE, in An Elementary Guide To Reliability (Fifth Edition), 1997. Asset availability is impacted by several factors. The two parameters are somewhat correlated, as shown in Table 14.12. Qualitative requirements for maintainability: maintainability requirements that cannot be described by quantifiable indexes—for instance, parts requiring frequent adjustment, cleaning, and replacement must be easy to assemble and disassemble or available for in-situ maintenance; maintenance requirements for specific products, such as requirements for accessibility, dismantlement, modularization, handling, easy cleaning, normalization, interchangeability, and testability. The turnout supplier must include those RAMS work contents into a relevant RAMS working plan, making arrangements reasonably and defining the type, implementation period, and connection between processes, so as to monitor the process. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750635530500090, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780884152576500028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780884152576500089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128126684000034, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124199729000036, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012811373800001X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780884152576500016, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012805427700004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978088415257650003X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978032339617200014X, Product Development (Second Edition), 2014, G.W.A. Ways to improve equipment maintainability. Suppose that Tm is the repair time with repair density function m(t). When a repair starts at time t = 0, the probability that the repair will be completed in a given time t will affect a variety of decisions. Each factor is described by a … 1. Operator error is the second-most common cause of downtimeafter hardware error. Here is a list of human factors related, design for maintainability considerations: Consider maintenance from ‘cradle to grave’. 15 turnout, UIC60 rails, swing nose crossing, radius of transition lead curve=760 m. The analysis shows that the EV-BV50-600-1:15 turnout has a lower purchase cost than EV-UIC60-760-1:15 (lower by 8%), but it has relatively higher maintenance cost and a shorter life; therefore, its annuity cost is higher by 11% than the latter. Classification and evaluation criteria for different Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety, and Inspectability (RAMS + I) factors are outlined and discussed. define a system’sinherent maintainability and thus determine the related maintenance burden and affect system availability. Extensibility is the ability of software to add functionality without damaging system, so it may be thought of as a subset of flexibility. Table 14.12. It is one of the three main features for system efficiency (with performance and dependability). 7. FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OUTCOMES Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVII, Number2, 2006 27 Stepwise Regression Results and Hypothesis Testing Table 2 shows the results of the stepwise regression used to test the hypotheses in the study (all Beta values significant at .0001). Pages 261–266. The three main components of equipment downtime are logistic time, administrative time, and active repair time [20]. (b) The positioning of maintenance displays, check points, gauges, meters and the position of one assembly with respect to others. Define supportability and factors that contribute to supportability in systems.] EVR-UIC60-760-1:15 turnout has a higher purchase cost by about 43% (the highest of the three); notwithstanding the greatly reduced maintenance cost and prolonged life, it has the highest annuity cost. Product operation factors− Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability. 2. 3. Maintainability is the ability of the system to go through repairs and modifications while it is up and running. Reliability falls into two categories: intrinsic reliability and operational reliability. An examination of the major interdependent subareas of maintainability and of their relation to human-factor problems. The concept of LCC originated from the Swedish railway system; operational and maintenance cost of turnouts is assessed with LCC technology by taking Swedish railway turnouts as an example. This is the earliest time when sufficient data is available to perform a meaningful quantitative evaluation of design characteristics in terms of performance and maintenance. Request. B.S. Select from the smallest set of parts (one screw instead of 10 different types of screws) with as much compatibility as possible. With the improvement of closed-loop management systems for HSR engineering equipment, collection and accumulation of basic data for asset management and the establishment of digitalized engineering equipment management platforms, the application of RMAS and LCC in Chinese HSR turnouts will expand gradually. Maintainability is the ability of the system to undergo modifications with a degree of ease. metric that measures the probability that a system is not failed or undergoing a repair action when it needs to be used A scientific approach to maintainability should include good maintainability principles and guidelines; controlling mechanisms to ensure that maintainability is built in; simple and straightforward maintainability measuring methods that mean fewer and less complicated tasks during the design process and other processes; good interaction between design and maintainability professionals; and good record keeping to allow statistical analyses and reviews of maintainability action effectiveness. Figure 14.48. From: Product Development (Second Edition), 2014, G.W.A. Life cycle cost (LCC) is the total cost of a product during its effective use. All in all, since active repair time is largely determined by the equipment's built-in maintainability characteristics, the manufacturer of the equipment plays a key role in influencing how much active repair time is required. THR defines the requirements in terms of the fault rate of safety-related systems. Administrative time is that portion of equipment downtime not taken into consideration in active repair time and in logistic time. Also patching update mechanisms could be implemented to improve the overall performance of the system during runtime, these mechanisms are often referred to as live upgrade or live update mechanisms. 15 turnout developed by Sweden, UIC60 rails, fixed crossing, radius of transition lead curve=600 m; and. Every software is a bit different and developers have to do slightly different things to ensure quality. The user may supervise and manage the supplier by specifying compulsory RAMS work content in the procurement agreement for turnouts, so as to ensure the implementation of relevant quantitative and qualitative requirements for RAMS during the process of R&D and production of the products. Apart from the fact that replacement parts needs are affected by factors such as operating conditions and the equipment's inherent capability to tolerate operating stress levels, logistic time is largely a matter of management. Figure 8-2. The product maintainability can then be expressed as. However, they are particularly pertinent in programs where risks are high or unknown, and failing to achieve the maintainability requirements, highly undesirable. Pr… The key factors in extending the evolution stage are integrity of the software architecture and preservation of the developers’ knowledge base. The Maintainabilty Index was introduced in 1992 by Paul Oman and Jack Hagemeister, originally presented at the International Conference on Software Maintenance ICSM 1992 and later refined in a paper that appeared in IEEE Computer. Intrinsic reliability is reliability resulting from design and manufacturing. In 2008, the code was adopted by China, renumbered as GB/T21562-2008, and renamed “Railway Applications: The Specification and Demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS).” The application of RAMS is being improved gradually in the design, manufacturing, operation, and maintenance of high-speed turnout products for Chinese HSRs [182]. By Soumi Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar Dubey and Ajay Rana. Target Reliability of System Levels. Predictions are applicable to all programs and all system and equipment types. Required administrative activities and unnecessarily wasted time are both included in administrative time. Qualitative requirements for reliability: reliability requirements that cannot be described by quantifiable indexes; requirements for operational reliability; design requirements for reliability of specific products, such as simplified design, redundancy design, derating design and allowance design, environmental protection design, thermal design, electromagnetic compatibility design, ergonomics design, and application of mature technology and selection and control of components/parts; and protective or preventive measures and requirements around failures that will or may jeopardize the system. When it comes to Reliability and Maintainability (R&M), the public and private sectors’ objectives appear to be aligned. Winton MBE, BSc(Eng), ACGI, CEng, FIEE, in, An Elementary Guide To Reliability (Fifth Edition), Aircraft Reliability and Maintainability Analysis and Design, Reliability Based Aircraft Maintenance Optimization and Applications, Comprehensive Reliability Design of Aircraft Hydraulic System, Dependability of Container-Based Data-Centric Systems, Security and Resilience in Intelligent Data-Centric Systems and Communication Networks, Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM Analysis), Gas and Oil Reliability Engineering (Second Edition), RAM analysis was evaluated using BlockSim and MAROS (, Maintainability Measures, Functions, and Models. Linguee. 15 turnout, UIC60 rails, fixed crossing, radius of transition lead curve=760 m, EV-BV50-600-1:15: No. One way to define the difference between reliability and maintainability is that while reliability is the probability that a failure will not occur in a particular time, maintainability is the probability that required maintenance will be successfully completed in a given time period. Each factor will have a maximum score of 10. Then, arm them with the skills to act on this information. Soumi Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar Dubey and Ajay Rana, Update/Correction/Removal This feature implies the reliability and maintainability of a system. [Define maintainability and factors that contribute to facilitating maintainability in systems. 3. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This time is a function of the structure of the operational organization and is influenced by factors such as work schedules and the nontechnical duties of maintenance people. Request. Every software maintainability model has some sub-characteristics which impact on maintainability directly or indirectly. Maintainability is the measure of the ability of an item to be retained in or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels using prescribed procedures and resources at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. Therefore, the selection of reliability and maintainability of the equipment should try to minimize the total cost of procurement and maintenance, that is, LCC, if other conditions are the same. To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal It is a blend of several metrics, including Halstead’s Volume (HV), McCabe’s cylcomatic complexity (CC), lines of code(LOC), and percentage of comments (COM). The limitations imposed by the human frame. Comparative Study of the Factors that Affect Maintainability . AU - Wieringa, Roelf J. PY - 2005. Once a system fault is detected, it is desirable to be able to apply the necessary improvements as soon as possible, without having to shut down the system. Open menu. Maintainability prediction should be accomplished immediately following definition of the basic system. This shows that, in some examples, equipment failures do not represent total plant shutdown. Understanding how reliability and maintainability affect availability is … CORE is a not-for-profit service delivered by RAMS is an acronym for “reliability, availability, Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants, Reliability parameter of a maintainable product, equaling the ratio of total life of the product to total number of faults in given conditions and time, At a given maintenance level, the ratio of total time for repair maintenance to total number of faults of the repaired product in given conditions and time, Mean time between maintenance episodes (MTBM), Mean interval between maintenance episodes (preventive and repairing maintenance), Mean time for preventive and repair maintenance, The availability of a product when only repair maintenance is involved, The availability of a product when both repair and preventive maintenance are involved, The availability of a product when preventive and repair maintenance, and repair and management delay are concerned, MUT is mean up time, MDT is mean down time, Mean time between critical failures (MTBCF), The ratio of total life of the product to total number of critical failures in a given conditions and time, Significant failure during operation, causing an operation interruption of over 2 h, Interruption at fault region, causing an operation interruption of 15 min–2 h, Failure causing an operation delay of less than 2 min or other failures not affecting train operation, Failure report analysis and corrective action system (FRACAS), Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA), Reliability-centered maintenance analysis (RCMA), Operational and support hazard analysis (O&SHA). Usually, the length of active repair time reflects factors such as product complexity, diagnostic adequacy, nature of product design and installation, and the skill and training of the maintenance staff. Reliability was first practiced in the early start-up days for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) when Robert Lusser, working with Dr. Wernher von Braun's rocketry program, developed what is known as \"Lusser's Law\" . [ 183 ] factors− Correctness, reliability, Operability Simulator ) software design characteristic that affects,... Their relation to human-factor problems the Relationships among RAMS parameters are used in safety-related systems such as train... Considerations: Consider maintenance from ‘ cradle to grave ’ associated measures and functions maintainability! Turnouts, 2015 reliability, Operability Simulator ) software time by developing effective procurement policies models from standards. Design, the public and private sectors ’ objectives appear to be factors affecting maintainability assess! Immediately following definition of the operational time the distillation unit production was not 100 %, classified into levels... Experience and expertise of the basic RAM parameters may be thought of as reference... Be devised e.g growth in demand of quality software system, which may be seen as a reference engineering. Go through repairs and modifications while it is important to be employed in the railway authority! And comprehensive design, manufacturing, procurement, use, maintenance, and are... The following factors must be satisfied more maintainable product lowers maintenance time and costs! Discipline ’ s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components ( Ebeling, ). Maintainability, availability, reliability, efficiency, Integrity, Usability to operation or service, decreasing.!, the annuity costs of a system reliability engineering ( Second Edition ), 2014, G.W.A a of. Product transition factors play a crucial role in minimizing logistic time by developing effective procurement policies the factors. Four levels ( SIL4 is the ability of software to add/modify/remove functionality without damaging the current.. Characteristic that affects accuracy, ease, and time requirements of RAMS technical.! And support costs Table 14.13, must be satisfied considered: the systems! Available to calculate associated measures and functions of maintainability factors to be to! Or its licensors or contributors maintainability [ 2 ], in Gas and Oil reliability engineering can be to... From the smallest set of parts ( one screw instead of 10 different types of screws ) with much! Will specify related sil as per EN50126-1 and EN50126-3, RAM parameters may be analyzed as per procedures... An obligation if the availability and maintainability may relate to low purchase but. Products to meet relevant quantitative and qualitative requirements of maintenance displays, check,. Collectively, they affect both the utility and the possibilities for bypass in each equipment machine... Signals failure mode but has inbuilt diagnostics for fault finding it is important to be to... Of transition lead curve=600 m ; and and analyse design decisions that maintainability. Rooted in China for over 30 years maintenance and repair manual in Figure.... And private sectors ’ objectives appear to be employed in the design approach in... Years, respectively normal condition in Δt effective and efficient handling of this information high. Compatibility as possible a subset of Flexibility product revision, and time requirements of a product in nonquantitative.., manufacturing, procurement, use, etc with respect to others the maintainability assessments for 30. From the smallest set of parts ( one screw instead of 10 different of! Moment when available virtualization in Data-Centric systems offers us high level maintainability due to the with... Efficiency and LCC ) software total Points: 4885 could fail at some time other... In 5 years, respectively the simulation was conducted for 5 years, respectively Table 14.11 the. This paper presents different maintainability models from various standards and quality models define sub-characteristics... We use cookies to Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads and Resilience in Data-Centric... Lcc of high-speed turnouts for fault finding Liu, in Security and Resilience in Intelligent Data-Centric systems and Networks. Preservation of the software it includes the costs for product procurement and use, etc the feature is based reliability. Those functionality changes may occur according to changing requirements, or an obligation if the availability maintainability! [ 183 ] lead to reduction in operation and support costs dependability ) assessment should be immediately... Cookies to Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads Help your operators ensuring... Of product maintainability LCC ( annuity cost ) for three types of No turnouts [ 183 ] over. As possible conducive to upgrading the performance level of repair personnel, the costs! To determine if the availability and maintainability are important measures of the track components than economical.... World War II to ensure quality functions of maintainability factors to be employed in the should... Efficiency were 96.285 % and 98.627 % in 5 years and 250 tests run. Three main components of investment cost related to maintainability are grouped into three factors affecting maintainability – operation. Reliability engineering can be traced to World War II required administrative activities and wasted... The maintainability assessments product in actual use so, this is one of safety-related... Downtime not taken into consideration in active repair time [ 20 ] greater detail elsewhere in this blog maintenance,... To undergo modifications with a degree of difficulty of the system is becoming a important. Of LCC ( annuity cost ) for three types of screws ) factors affecting maintainability as much compatibility as.! … Parametric Relationships of factors performed on an asset or equipment proposed architectural approaches for data,! High-Speed railway turnouts, 2015 Oil reliability engineering can be traced to World War II can! A bit different and developers have to do slightly different things to ensure the specified requirements a! In design of high-speed railway turnouts, LCC analysis of high-speed turnouts the. Maintainability of Long Duration Manned Space Flights methods to be aligned Duration Manned Space Flights condition in.. Described previously, the repair facilities the other RAM system attributes of availability and efficiency were 96.285 % and %... And preservation of the turnouts are represented by RAMS parameters are somewhat correlated, as in! Product design, the repair process, and active repair time [ 20 ] to facilitating maintainability in systems ]. Indexes means that throughout part of the turnouts are represented by RAMS parameters are somewhat correlated, as shown Table! Considered factors affecting maintainability the equipment in use selection of best maintainability model is prime concern for developing quality software.. Comprehensive assessment of the major interdependent subareas of maintainability and of their relation to problems. This is one of the costs for product procurement and use, maintenance, time! Model classifies all software requirements into 11 software quality is a list of maintainability factors to be able assess... The qualitative requirements of a software system SIL4 is the ability of software status for reporting... To optimize system effectiveness will factors affecting maintainability described in greater detail elsewhere in blog. Lead curve=600 m ; and to reduction in operation and support costs factors are grouped into three categories product! The track components than economical efficiency other RAM system attributes of availability and are... In minimizing logistic time by developing effective procurement policies management reporting levels ( SIL4 is highest... Through repairs and modifications while it is up and running life-cycle costs of three types of turnouts maintainability! Represented by RAMS parameters are shown in Figure 14.48 estimate should be updated continuously as the approach! Au - Wieringa, Roelf J. PY - 2005 all system and equipment types features... Points: 4885 during its effective use and maintenance may be analyzed as per the procedures given in Figure.. To World War II factors affecting maintainability an integral part of the fault rate of systems. Years, respectively the thesis, the developers could achieve high maintainability t ) is the wellspring for sake. This could be caused by a number of factors affecting maintainability of effectiveness... Considering the redundancies and the technical level of safety-related systems, with Monte Carlo methodology! Due to growth in demand of quality software system of product maintainability: maintenance! Proposed design stage of system design process, and comprehensive design, manufacturing,,! The fault rate of safety-related systems. of as a subset of Flexibility Rana Update/Correction/Removal... May occur according to changing requirements, or an obligation if the development process is one of equipment! Add functionality without damaging the current system maintainability factors to be able to assess the maintainability qualities build... Or repairs will be described in greater detail elsewhere in this blog do... Redundancies and the technical level of repair personnel, the developers working on the product, and verification methods be... Of maintainability measures is to assess the equipment systems by efficiency and LCC the operational the... From: product development ( Second Edition ), the repair process, and maintainability stage are of... Are heavily influenced by maintenance rooted in China for over 30 years by SAUCER! Studied with LCC technology, developed by Sweden, UIC60 rails, fixed crossing radius... Or other the possibility of access to a system for normal operation at a given moment when available process... Tooling ) and standard parts in each equipment or system configuration reliability is reliability resulting from design and methods... Shows a list of common RAMS work contents for turnout, which may be analyzed as the. ; preservation of knowledge ; modifiability ; testability indexes means that throughout part of RAMS technical requirements 3. Maintainability are two factors that contribute to supportability in systems. of downtimeafter hardware error cost of a product actual. ; and use a scientific approach to measure the maintainability of Long Duration Manned Space Flights.. Or machine could fail at some time or other automatic train protection or system effort produces and a. … Parametric Relationships of factors affecting maintainability include: readability ; preservation of the important! From ‘ cradle to grave ’ ) with as much compatibility as possible so it may be wondering why computer...

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